Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Role of Women in Homers The Odyssey Essay - 695 Words

The Role of Women in Homers The Odyssey Women form an important part of the folk epic, written by Homer, The Odyssey. Within the story there are three basic types of women: the goddess, the seductress, and the good hostess/wife. Each role adds a different element and is essential to the telling of the story. The role of the goddess is one of a supernatural being, but more importantly one in a position to pity and help mortals. Athena, the goddess of wisdom, is the most prominent example of the role; in the very beginning of the story she is seen making a plea for Odysseus return home, and throughout the first half of the book she assists him in his journey. She is the driving force behind arranging†¦show more content†¦Even Kirke and Kalypso help Odysseus tremendously with information and supplies. It is the Role of the woman goddess and not the male god to pity and proffer help to the suffering mortal. The next and less benevolent role is that of the seductress. Two stories about such women referred to in The Odyssey are those of the half-sisters Helen and Klytaimnestra. The entire Trojan War was caused by Helens unfaithfulness to Menelaos; her affair caused many deaths and Odysseus would not have had to leave home if she had not run away with Paris. The other sister also caused pain and suffering by having an affair and then killing her husband, Agamemnon, with her lover on his homecoming day. The seductress is always looked upon as dangerous and harmful to mankind. The Seirenes symbolize this role; their song seduces and compels anyone listening to linger until death. Kirke tries to seduce Odysseus before she helps him, and the beautiful Kalypso entices him with sex and immortality and will not release him to go home. It is the heros job to resist the temptation of the seductress or it will lead to his downfall. In direct contrast with the seductress is the good hostess or wife. Penelope, Odysseus wife, is the most important of these characters. She is the image of steadfastness, waiting and hoping for years for Odysseusreturn. Even the intimidating suitors do not bend her from her constancy. Along with Penelope is Eurykleia who matchesShow MoreRelatedThe Odyssey : The Role Of Women In Homers Odyssey966 Words   |  4 Pagesinteractions. The Odyssey portrays what is right or wrong in relationships between god and mortal, father and son, and man and woman. In the epic poem, the role of women is a vital demonstration of Ancient Greece. The women in the epic are unique in their personality, motives, and relationships towards men. In Homers, The Odyssey, all women are different, but all of them help to represent the role of the ideal woman. Homers epic describes the world of women in Ancient Greece, a time where women were seenRead MoreThe Role Of Women In Homers Odyssey1165 Words   |  5 Pages The Role of Women In The Odyssey In literature, are women used as important roles or only used as love interests and for their beauty? This question has been around for a long time and there is still no clear answer. One literary example is the women characters in Homer’s The Odyssey- the ancient Greek epic of Odysseus and his journey home to Ithaka. When on his journey, Odysseus meets many women who are ultimately used as alluring characters to distract Odysseus on his journey home. ThroughoutRead More The Role of Men and Women in Homers The Odyssey 1173 Words   |  5 PagesWho is the ideal Greek man? It can be argued that through the illustration Homer weaves throughout the Odyssey, Odysseuss character traits cast a lens as a prime example of a man in ancient Greek society. He appears to be brave, intelligent, well-spoken, and clever. Much of his knowledge is discovered by his travels, absorbing the local culture around him and using it as a guide. Aristocratic and a warrior. Perhaps the best warrior of all time. It is the Iliad which presents these attributes initiallyRead MoreThe Demeaning Role Of Women In Homers The Odyssey1280 Words   |  6 PagesThe Odyssey is one of two poems written by Homer describing the drama of the Trojan War, more specifically, the catastrophic journey of the hero Odysseus back home. Throughout the tales, female characters exhibit the many and diverse roles of Greek women, and also their significance in a world dominated by immortal beings.   Like countless others, the goddess Calypso’s beauty and elegance could be the cause of circumstances both good and evil. Calypso is remembered most for keeping Odysseus as a prisonerRead More The Role of Women in Ancient Greece as Depicted in Homer’s The Odyssey897 Words   |  4 PagesThe Role of Women in Ancient Greece as Depicted in Homer’s The Odyssey Women as Citizens For this informative report I will attempt to point out the roles women and how they are viewed in ancient Greece. I will then show how these views are present in Homer’s The Odyssey. How are women, goddess or mortal, conveyed in The Odyssey? The Odyssey was written around 700 BC during the Archaic period (750 – 550 BC). This was a time of great economical and social change in Greek history dueRead More Important Role of Women in Homers Odyssey Essay examples1721 Words   |  7 Pages   For the Greeks, Homers Odyssey was much more than just an entertaining tale of gods, monsters, and men, it served as cultural paradigm from which every important role and relationship could be defined.   This book, much more so than its counter part The Iliad, gives an eclectic view of the Acheans peacetime civilization.   Through Odyssey, we gain an understanding of what is proper or improper in relationships between father and son, god and mortal, servant and master, guest and host, and--importantly--manRead More A Comparison of the Role of Women in Homer’s Odyssey and Iliad3375 Words   |  14 PagesThe Role of Women in Odyssey and The Iliad The Iliad and Odyssey present different ideals of women, and the goddesses, who are presented as ideal women, differ between the two epics. The difference in roles is largely dependent on power, and relations to men, as well as sexual desirability and activity. The goddesses have a major role in both epics as Helpers of men. They have varied reasons for this.   One is a maternal instinct. This is displayed in the literal mother-son relationshipsRead MoreThe Odyssey, by Homer Essay1150 Words   |  5 PagesHomer’s Odyssey was written around 700 BC. During this time there was major social and economic change, which brought the development of new cities, as well as new laws to govern them. Political rights and citizenship in Greek society truly defined the roles of women in this time period. All of the laws governing the population of Greece were not only written by men, but also enforced by men. Homer’s Odyssey is the product of a society in which men played the dominant role. Women were held atRead More The Role of Women in the Odyssey Essay1212 Words   |  5 PagesThe Role of Women in The Odyssey Homer wrote the classic epic The Odyssey more than 2,500 years ago. At that time in ancient Greek society, as well as in the whole of the ancient world, the dominant role was played by men. Society was organized, directed, and controlled by men, and it was accepted that women occupied a subservient and inferior position. Women, of course, were valued, but were expected to possess certain traits and perform certain tasks that men demanded of them. Does Homers writingRead MoreThe Penelopiad Analysis958 Words   |  4 Pagesnovel ‘The Odyssey’ . In an interview, Atwood explained her beliefs on the gender roles surround The Odyssey thus incorporating this as well as other materials into ‘The Penelopiad’ by stating: â€Å"There is an argument that has been made quite thoroughly that The Iliad and The Odyssey were written by two different people, and that the person who wrote The Odyssey was a woman.’ Atwood then carries on to explain her argument stating how several people have made the argument of how ‘The Odyssey’ was written

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Negative Effect of Television on People Essay

Of course, Television, one of the main sources of entertainment is pleasurable. Most adults and children find it very interesting to watch television programs. A good number of individuals in the society are unaware that their time, fervor and even their personal rights are sacrificed to watching television. Although television is enjoyable, accessible, cheap and attractive, most of the contents depicted by it such as violence and sexual intercourse have adverse influences on its viewers. It affects the health of children and upsets our daily life activities. Researches had shown that watching television for long hours has negative effects on its viewers. Television became popular in the 1950s and since then, it has spread all over†¦show more content†¦Slightly more than one-third of the child molesters and rapists in this study claimed to have at least occasionally been incited to commit an offense by exposure to pornography. Among the child molesters incited, the study rep orted that 53 percent of them deliberately used the stimuli of pornography as they prepared to offend. (Hughes 12). I can remember lucidly when I was still in secondary school, after fantasizing for more than 6 years; I lost my reasoning faculty. Indulging myself on that which wasn’t real has made me unable to contemplate on that which was real. I lost my logical reasoning and my initiative ability. My mind was contaminated by the things I watched in pornographic movies which in turn led me into series of masturbations. Our family doctor even said that my mind was weakened by the things I watched and that it was really affecting my emotions. Conversely, people now access pornographic scenarios through the internet but however, not as much as television. Researches had discovered that pornography accessed through the internet is being paid for before viewing it, unlike that of the television which can be watched for free. Moreover, movie shooters promote sexual activities through the television by using storage devices such as compact disks which contain pornographic videos and images;Show M oreRelatedThe Reality of Reality Television1699 Words   |  7 PagesThe Reality of Reality Television Jacqueline Knudsen ENG122: English Composition II Jenna Fussell February 2, 2013 The Reality of Reality Television Have you ever set there watching your favorite reality television show and wondered what effects it could have on you, your family or your friends? Truth is most people do not think about the effects television shows can have before watching them or allowing their children to watch them. ThisRead MoreEssay on Negative Effects of Tv on Family Life1130 Words   |  5 PagesNegative Effects of TV The television has many effects on family life and the individual, causing family bonds to unravel and the individual to become naà ¯ve of their surroundings. The TV keeps one hooked for hours on end, causing family relationships to diminish and personal relationships to weaken. Not only does the TV seem to be a good alternative to conversations and interactions amongst one another, but it also helps to create a gap between the fictional world of TV and reality. Since theRead More The Effects Of Television Essay784 Words   |  4 PagesThe television has been commercially available in America since the 1930’s. According to the A.C. Nielsen Co., the average American watches more than 4 hours of TV each day. In a sixty-five year lifespan, that person will have spent nine years glued to the tube. This constant attention to programming can cause positive and negative effects. The negative effects on an average American family can be explained psychologically, emotionally, and physically. Television affects the psyche of childrenRead MoreThe Negative Effects Of Television1297 Words   |  6 PagesTelevision has been a means of entertainment, a way to learn new things, a means in which people can explore the world, and learn about other cultures for many years. Children watch television approximately three to four hours a day on average. By their teenage years, they will have watched more television than their time spent in school. The content watched and the excessive time spent in front a TV during early childhood can prove to have negative effects later in their lives. There has to be aRead MoreThe Phenomenon Of Reality Television941 Words   |  4 Pagesphenomenon of Reality Television† GENERAL PURPOSE: To present new information SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To inform my audience about the history of reality television, the types of reality television, how popular it has become in our world today, and the negative and positive effects of reality television. THESIS/CENTRAL IDEA: There is so much more to reality television than meets the eye. INTRODUCTION I. HOOK: Just imagine. You’re sitting on your couch flipping through the channels on your television. You noticeRead MoreDesensitization From Lack Of Discretion1614 Words   |  7 PagesDoes all this play a part in how we prosper as adults? The media left uncensored has lasting negative psychological effects on our children which in turn lends to poor decision making, violence and other immoral choices which in turn degrades our individual lives as we get older and society as a whole. How does psychology play a role in media censorship? Psychologists have been studying the effects of television on our children since as early as the 1950’s. â€Å"As a result of 15 years of â€Å"consistently disturbing†Read More Television Violences Effects on Children Essay1080 Words   |  5 PagesTelevision Violences Effects on Children Most people read statistics like â€Å"Before the average American child leaves elementary school, he or she will have witnessed more than 8,000 murders on television† ( â€Å"Does T.V. Kill?† ), and worry about the negative effect viewing violence on television will have on their children. Research into the effects of childhood exposure to violent television programming shows that there is cause for concern. Watching violence on television does have a negativeRead MoreHow Technology Has Its Impacts On Family Life1585 Words   |  7 Pagesmore noteworthy effect amid the season of function and additionally amid the recreation times. Human life has been created a considerable measure of the comfort which innovation has given. At the point when individuals are searching for better future utilizing innovation, internet and media shown to have several effects on human life on the other side. It has its impact in great and terrible routes on the brains of individuals. It is a key element in choosing the eventual fate of people in the mean timeRead MoreThe Reality Of Television Has On Store For Me Tonight1547 Words   |  7 PagesIt is Monday morning and I am already thinking about what reality television has in store for me tonight. There are so many shows to choose from at prime time, so instead of making a hard decision, I simply plan to watch them all. From Basketball Wives and Black Ink Crew to Love and Hip-hop and The Real Housewives of Atlanta, my Monday night seems to be very eventful. It is something about the constant drama that keeps my glued to the TV screen – the constant shouting and fussing, not to mentionRead MoreTelevision Shows and Offensive Language1038 Words   |  4 PagesOffensive language is a part of television that has increased dramatically over the past decades. Public television shows such as Family Guy, Southpark, The Office, Tosh.0 and countless others are riddled with offensive jokes that target nearly every group of people on the planet. With so much offensive language it is hard not to question whether or not this is completely changing how offensive media is perceived outside of the media. These shows have jokes that use negative stereotypes on almost all

Equality and Diversity †the Way That People Describe Themselves and Others Free Essays

Describe the individual factors that make a person who they are, by giving examples of each of the following factors: a) Physical characteristics b) Emotions c) Likes and dislikes d) Values and beliefs Each of us has different individual characteristics and factors, and it is the combination of these that make up who we are. The individual factors are made up of physical characteristics (what people see –examples might be our size, build, colour of hair or skin); emotions (the way in which you feel – examples might be confidence, shyness, an outgoing nature, or miserable); likes and dislikes (things you enjoy doing or those that you avoid – examples might be work, hobbies, sporting activities, cooking / eating, socialising); and values and beliefs (how the world appears to you – examples might be your religion, your moral code, your political beliefs, or your life choices in terms of education and employment). Resubmission: In relation to values and beliefs, these are essentially our moral make-up. We will write a custom essay sample on Equality and Diversity – the Way That People Describe Themselves and Others or any similar topic only for you Order Now They are the thoughts and beliefs by which we live our lives, and which will help to provide direction for us. Although they may develop as we progress from childhood into adulthood, our values and beliefs will generally tend to stay the same for much of our adult lives. Our values are ideas and moral views that we, as individuals, feel are very important to the way in which we live our lives, for instance the way in which we raise our children, or the way in which we value integrity and honesty in others. Our beliefs differ slightly in that they refer to ideas that we hold to be true, for instance religious or political views and ideology. Describe the ways in which someone might choose to describe themselves by giving examples of the following topics: a) Personal interests and characteristics b) Religious and cultural characteristics c) Geographic characteristics People are moulded to an extent by what they have seen and experience in their lifetimes, and this is something that can and will change as time moves on. When people are particularly interested or motivated by certain areas of life, hobbies or beliefs, they may choose to describe themselves by providing reference to that persuasion. For instance: †¢Personal interests and characteristics – As we progress through life, from child to adult, and then as we grow older, we develop interests in certain aspects of life and certain hobbies and pastimes. It may be that we develop these entirely independently of anyone else, but we are often guided and influenced by people we know or see. Our interests may be reflected in our membership of certain personal interest groups – for instance political parties, social groups or sporting groups. Someone with a particular interest in politics, and with particular political persuasion may choose to join a local political party, taking part in activities, and helping to campaign for certain political plans. They may then refer to themselves as a Conservative, for instance. Those who have a particular interest in community involvement may join a group such as the Rotary Club and help to organise charitable events. It may be that an ardent football or cricket fan joins a particular team as a member, thereafter referring to themselves by the name of the club (for example â€Å"A Gooner† (Arsenal FC)). , or a â€Å"Hell’s Angel†. In terms of personal characteristics, people may tend to refer to themselves by way of their characteristics, and these can be elements of a person’s make-up that they have not necessarily chosen or developed. These could be with regard to their emotional characteristics, perhaps describing themselves as â€Å"outgoing† or â€Å"funny†, or otherwise making reference to the way that they appear to others. They may also refer to themselves with regard to a particular personality trait, for instance their sexual persuasion. Some may refer to themselves by way of physical traits, for instance the colour of their hair, the size of their bodies, or a particular disability. †¢Religious and cultural characteristics – a person may refer to themselves in terms of their religion and belief (â€Å"I am a Christian / Jew / Muslim†). They may also choose to refer to themselves as being part of a particular cultural group, or as having particular cultural beliefs. For instance some may choose to describe themselves according to age group (for instance a teenager or pensioner), or with reference to their standing in society or perceived membership of a class group (working, middle or upper class), or perhaps with regard to their profession (for example tradesman, health worker). The cultural characteristics can also link in to an individual’s ideology or belief – it may be that they are a member of a particular belief group, such as Scientology, and therefore cal themselves a Scientologist; or they describe themselves as being of a particular political persuasion (â€Å"I am a Liberal†). Geographic characteristics – a person may describe themselves as being a member of a particular group based in a certain part of the Country. For instance, a â€Å"Geordie†, â€Å"Londoner†, or â€Å"Northerner† and â€Å"Southerner†. These groups carry with them a number of different identifiers: This cou ld be in terms of language and dialect used (one is often able to identify the geographic origin of those with particularly strong accents, or those using particular phrases); it may also be in terms of cuisine enjoyed within that particular region, the local sport, or perhaps the local customs and associated dress. In addition to these there has historically been differing geographic characteristics when it comes to employment and industry (for instance clay mining in the South West, coal mining in the northern areas of the UK, and steel making in areas such as Sheffield). All in all there are a number of different identifiers and characteristics that could be adopted by an individual as a result of where they originate from geographically. Explain what is meant by the following terms by completing the sentences: a) Dual discrimination means†¦ b) Positive discrimination means†¦ c) Discrimination arising from disability means†¦ ) Discrimination by association means†¦ e) Protected characteristics means†¦ a) Dual discrimination means being discriminated against for more than a single reason (eg race and religion). b) Positive discrimination means receiving favourable treatment as a result of one of their protected characteristics (eg level of service due to their age, or o ffer of a job due to gender). c) Discrimination arising from disability means being discriminated against as a result of having a disability. d) Discrimination by association means being discimnated against as a result of our association with another person or culture that is also receiving iscrimination. e) Protected characteristics means the personal / social characteristics that are protected from discrimination by law (gender / age / race / religion†¦ ). Make clear what it means to have multiple identities and then give three examples from people you know (not yourself) to illustrate your explanation of multiple identities. Having multiple or shared identities means that you are not just a member of a particaulr group or represent a single interest. People are made up of a number of different interests, beliefs, personal and geographical characteristics. Therefore when you describe yourself you would likely refer to a number of these identities in order to paint the full picture. For example: †¢A teacher, as well as a mother of two children, and a keen swimmer. †¢A doctor, as well as a cyclist, and a proud cook. †¢A schoolboy, older brother and keen gamer. Clearly explain what is meant by shared identities. Shared identities are interests or beliefs that we hold in common with a group of other people. This may be with regard to areas of life such as religion, sport, profession, or geographical area. Explain how an individual can identify themselves as belonging to a number of different groups. ) Give two examples for the above. An individual will almost certainly have interests, beliefs or membership that ties in with a number of different groups. As a result, they may choose to refer to any number of these when describing themselves as a person. For example: †¢I am a practising Christian and am also a proud North erner. †¢I am a pensioner, but still enjoy cycling with the Middlesex Marauders Any individual will almost certainly be a member of a number of different groups, either due to their specific ideals or beliefs, their physical and emotional characteristics, or their personal interests and characteristics. A number of these have been expanded upon in previous answers. A person may choose to describe themselves by reference to one or all of these membership groups. This may be with reference to personal interest groups – for instance political parties, social groups or sporting clubs. It may be with reference to personal characteristics, for instance their size, build, hair colour, emotional characteristics or sexual orientation. A person may refer to themselves in terms of their religion and belief. They may also choose to refer to themselves as being part of a particular cultural group, or as having particular political beliefs. An individual may also refer to themselves as coming from a particular geographic location, or as having originated from a particular demographic within society – for instance â€Å"a Northerner† or â€Å"a Geordie†. Two examples of using multiple groups as a way of describing yourself are as follows: †¢I am a practising Christian, a proud Northerner and am a founding member of the Lakeside lumberjacks. Here we see reference to a particular religious characteristic, in addition to a geographical characteristic and a personal interest characteristic. I am a pensioner, but still enjoy cycling with the Middlesex Marauders, and am a keen campaigner for the local Conservative party. Here we see examples of cultural (age and politics) characteristics, as well as personal interest characteristics. Write a description of yourself in terms of your own multiple identities. I am married and also a father of two children. I work locally as a police officer, a job that I entered after attending the University of Birmingham. I enjoy playing cricket as well as watching it, and am also a keen cyclist. I originate from Oxfordshire and have always lived in the South of England. How to cite Equality and Diversity – the Way That People Describe Themselves and Others, Essays

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Smart Film Essay Example

Smart Film Essay Glazing Methods Frame Design Setting Blocks Glass Protection 15 15 15 15 15 Trouble Shooting Warranties ESG Product Standards 16 16 17 Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 3 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Overview Where discretion is vital, ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ gives you the choice of privacy or the public gaze at the flick of a switch. Normally a diffused white which acts as a screen, this LCD glass can be made transparent simply by passing an electric current through it. With the power off, liquid crystal molecules in the Privacy film are randomly oriented so that incidental light is scattered, making the glass opaque; but when electricity is applied, the liquid crystal molecules line up and, as light passes through it, the Privacy film becomes optically clear. ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ is available in custom sizes and shapes, making it an ideal choice for architects and designers when creating working, home, retail and leisures spaces. In its white state, LCD glass even becomes the perfect backdrop on which to project presentations, without the need for a separate screen. Features Benefits Unique Features †¢ The largest size film on the market up to 1,800mm x 3,500 mm †¢ Can be combined with certified ESG fire resistant and security glass products, acoustic and decorative interlayers †¢ Can be applied to curved services, cut into odd shapes or even hole punched to accommodate specific display applications †¢ No distraction of shutters. Not susceptible to mechanical failure like powered shutters, curtains or blinds †¢ Blocks 99% of UV rays †¢ Low working voltage †¢ Life – average of 25 years with due care Benefits to our Customers: Manufactured in UK so full support and back up †¢ Offer supply and installation service able to supply turnkey system †¢ Solutions for a wide variety of applications †¢ Complex supply and fix electrical systems service †¢ UK Wide delivery service on ESG’s own fleet †¢ Crating and shipping export service Principles of Privacy Glass Technology Develop ment of LCD Film Obtained license from Kent State University in 1988 Developed reliable formulations and process Designed its own equipment for production Commercialized PDLC film in 1990 Commercialized PDLC glass in 1994 Low Haze version in 2004 Product Type We will write a custom essay sample on Smart Film specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Smart Film specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Smart Film specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer ESG LCD switchable privacy glass 4 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Applications †¢ Commercial Meeting rooms, conference rooms, office partition screens, executive offices, doors, sliding doors, roof lights, tradeshow exhibits and command centres †¢ Dealerships Showrooms, meeting rooms, sliding doors and customer areas †¢ Hotels and Restaurants Hotel room privacy screen, bathroom / bedroom privacy screen, external windows, doors, conference centre windows roof-lights, bar restaurant screens, toilet cubicles, balustrades and balconies †¢ Projection Internal or external high resolution rear projection screens Residential Bathroom / Shower enclosure, projection screens, doors, sliding doors, roof lights, ultra-modern residential and commercial blind applications †¢ Security Security windows, bullet resistant glass, bank cashier window and automated teller security windows, vision panels, entrance foyer and cell doors and windows †¢ Entertai nment and Showrooms Rear projection screens, feature screens, special effects panels and vanity screens †¢ Healthcare Hospital (nursery, emergency, ICU, operation room), fire resistant doors, hospital and privacy/restriction of view †¢ Retail Advertising screens, changing rooms and projection †¢ Executive Cars Privacy screens and security solution †¢ And many more Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 5 Technology Principle: LCD Privacy Film is made of two layers of transparent conductive film sandwiched with PDLC material. The film is then laminated between two pieces of glass. When electricity is applied to the film the liquid crystals line up and ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ becomes transparent. When the power is turned off, the liquid crystals return to their normal scattering positions and turn the glass from optically clear to opaque. The Liquid Crystal Privacy film is encapsulated between layers of glass in a protective laminate construction. ESG Switchable â„ ¢ incorporates 5mm low iron tempered glass as standard as this offers considerably higher light transmission. However as ESG manufacture the product in the UK customers can select from a wide range of glass types colours to suit their project requirements. The outside skins are made up of glass (normally 5 or 6mm annealed glass) each side, then a PVB interlayer is inserted on each side to trap and hold the Liquid Crystal Privacy film. PDLC Light Scattering Mechanism Off On Manufacturing ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ is manufactured in the UK by our experienced team and all stages of its production process are monitored and controlled. ESG employ a variety of laminating methods which enables them to produce a wide range of specialist glass products which can incorporate ESG Switchableâ„ ¢. This method allows us: †¢ to control our production process very precisely †¢ to use different intelayers optimal for specific applications (PVB, EVA, PTU) †¢ to produce all types of glass: shapes, curved, notches, cut outs, holes, fire glass †¢ to manufacture special products: ESG Bullet Resistant privacy glass ESG Secure glass ESG Pyrotechâ„ ¢ glass Glass Sheets LC Film Interlayer Films Glass Sheets The Liquid Crystal Privacy film is made up from electrically conductive coatings, a polymer matrix and liquidFilm LC crystals. This film is connected to the power Films via bus bars, electrical Interlayer suplly wiring and a transformer. Polymer Matrix Liquid Crystal LC Film ESG Acoustic glass We use only the best materials in our production process from major global producers, whose materials are manufactured to internationally recognised Conductive Coatings quality standards. LC Film Conductive Coatings Polymer Matrix Liquid Crystal 6 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Technical Data (ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Switchable LCD Privacy Glass) Glass Colour: Decorative Glass: Glass Type: Thickness: Standard Size: Bespoke Size: Any colour available (clear, bronze, grey, green tint, blue tint Screen printed, sand blasted and patterned Low iron, annealed, heat strengthened, tempered (All laminated) Various from 10 mm to multi layer laminates Up to 1,500mm x 3,200mm Up to 1,800mm x 3,500mm ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ has the largest sizing on the market Shape: Environmental: Electrical: Any shape, including holes, notches and cut outs – Storage -20 °C to 70 °C (-4 °F to 158 °F) – Operation -10 °C to 70 °C (14 °F to 140 °F) – Driving voltage: 65 volts A. C. – Current: 200 mA per square metre – Power: 5 Watts per square metre Approx. 00 milliseconds at room temperature 5 years Switching Time: Warranty: Example ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Glass Sound Control Data Thickness Standard Construction 4 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 4 mm Low Iron tempered glass 5 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 5 mm Low Iron tempered glass 6 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 6 mm Low Iron tempered glass ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Std dB Rating (Rw) 35 36 36 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Acoustic dB Rating (Rw) 37 38 39 10 mm 12 mm 14 mm ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Examples of Optical Performance* Thickness Standard Construction 4 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 4 mm Low Iron tempered glass 5 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 5 mm Low Iron tempered glass 6 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 6 mm Low Iron tempered glass Visible Light Transmission % (LT) ON* 80 ** 79 ** 78 ** Visible Light Transmission % VS Clear Laminated ? 12 ** ? 11 ** ? 10 ** 10 mm 12 mm 14 mm * According to manufacturer’s test data ** +/– 3% Essex Safety Glass Ltd. Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 7 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Shapes Rectangles Squares Triangles Circles Rounded Corners Trapezoids Parallelograms Domed Tops Notches Holes Cut Outs Special Shapes Special Shapes Special Shapes Special Shapes and many more. Clear/non switchable area s, very small bubbles and/or visual distortion may be present around notches/holes and cutouts. Therefore customers must allow for coverage of 10mm all around notches/holes cutouts. Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 8 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Electrical As with any electrical device, ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ must be included in the electrical layout for each project eg position of spurs, switching layout, containment, and connection boxes etc. The installation must meet all local rules and regulations. In addition, any metal frames which could come into contact with the wiring of the panel must be earthed. ESG is not responsible for supplying electrical layout drawings except when they are providing the electrical installation service. ESG supplied Switches Controllers – When ESG supply switches, remote controls and/or system control equipment for ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ installations, staff will demonstrate operation of the switches and controllers to their customer and provide copies of the technical data sheets for the various electrical components in this manual. ESG’s operatives will demonstrate the operation of all such equipment to their client or end user. It is important to note that the switch/remote control receiver must be wired into the circuit on the mains voltage side of the transformer. Failure to correctly install the switch/remote control receiver will lead to irreparable damage to ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels. Once glazed ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels must be switched off (into opaque state) for a minimum of six hours each day to reduce the risk of damage to the panel and to extend life expectancy. Fuses Transformers must be fitted by the electrical contractor in an easily accessible area so that the fuse can be accessed and replaced if necessary. Do not substitute the fuse in the power supply with a higher rated fuse as this may lead to damage to ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels. Electrical Installation Electrical Installation by ESG Contractors (UK) All electrical installations by ESG contractors will be carried out by electrically competent operatives with all relevant qualifications up to BS7671 IEE Wiring Regulations Seventeenth Edition. The power supply will be calculated to the correct amperage for each project. All 230V power supplies will use RCBO as a protected device and be calculated to operate within 0. of a second under fault conditions. All transformers will have isolation within a meter. All secondary side 65V supplies will be fused within the transformer to protect the ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels and transformer from fault. All installations will be tested to the latest BS7671 IEE Wiring Regulations Seventeenth Edition and on completion the client will be supplied with NICEIC electrical certificate. Power Transfo rmers All secondary side 65V supplies will be fused within the transformer to protect the ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels and transformer from fault. For ease of installation and maintenance ESG supply a number of transformers from 1 x 65V secondary outlet to 6 x 65V secondary outlets as follows : †¢ 230V AC to 65V 1000ma transformer and enclosure 65va †¢ 230V AC to 65V with 2x 65V 1000ma transformer and enclosure 130VA †¢ 230VAC to 65V with 4x 65V 1000ma transformer and enclosure 260VA †¢ 230VAC 65V with 6x 65V 1000ma transformer and enclosure 390VA Ensure the transformer input connects to the 230V supply and output to the ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels. Multiple panels should be connected in parallel. Each transformer output is capable of powering up to 4m2. Electrical Installation by ESG’s Customer ESG require all electrical installations of ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ be completed by a licensed electrician and in compliance with all local rules and regulations. Before installation the electrician must inspect bus bars, electrode leads and cables to ensure they are properly insulated. No exposed bus bars, electrodes or cables should be allowed to come into contact with metal frames as this may damage the ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels and transformer. Any metal framework into which panels will be installed must be earthed. Before turning on the power supply the electrician must test the resistance reading between the frame and the electrode to ensure the reading is infinite/open circuit ie there is no connection between the frame and the panels. If the reading is not infinite then the electrician will need to check all bus bars, electrodes and cables until the short circuit is found and insulated accordingly. Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 9 Bus bars Single Laminated or Double Glazed Units Fig 1. Bus bar on one short edge Wires to power ESG Privacy Panels 1. 5 metres long 2 x 0. 5mm cables per bus bar Bus Bar area 7 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge)* Bus bar ESG Privacy Panel (Mono/DGM) Bus bar * Allow 12 mm edge cover If the short edge to the long edge ratio is 1:4 or less, then the bus bars can be applied to either one short edge or one long edge as Fig. 1 Fig. 2 LCD Film Fig 2. Bus bar on one long edge Bus Bar area 8 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge)* LCD Film Bus bar ESG Privacy Panel (Mono/DGU) Wires to power ESG Privacy Panels 1. 5 metres long 2 x 0. 5mm cables per bus bar Bus bar Allow 12 mm edge cover If the short edge to the long edge ration is greater than 1:4 then the bus bar must be applied to one long or both short edges as Fig. 2 Fig. 3 10 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Fig 3. Alternative bus bar solutions – two short edges* Bus bar Bus Bar area 7 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge) Wires to power ESG Privacy Panels 1. 5 metres long 2 x 0. 5mm cables per bus bar LCD Film Bus Bar area 7 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge)** * Where size exceeds 1,500 mm x 3,200 mm ** Allow 12 mm edge cover Bus bar Fig 4. Alternative bus bar solutions – two long edges Bus Bar area 7 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge)* LCD Film Wires to power ESG Privacy Panels 1. 5 metres long 2 x 0. 5mm cables per bus bar Bus bar Bus bar * Allow 12 mm edge cover If the panel dimension exceed either 1500mm in both directions then the bus bars must be applied to either both short edges or both long edges respectively as Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Bus Bar area 7 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge) Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 11 Typical Wiring Diagrams Figure One Wireless Wall Switch / Remote Control Wiring Diagram L 20 240V AC 220 240V AC 13A Fused Supply 13A Fused Supply N N L L L WR 1 Radio Radio Receiver Receiver NN N N WR 1 L L 230v 230v I/P I/P N N 65v O/P L 65v N O/P N L ESG PT65V/1/4 Transformer ESG PT65V/1/4 RCWS Transformer ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ RCWS ESG2CH / Wireless Wall Switch / Remote controller ESG2CH / Wi reless Wall Switch / Remote controller Please Note: The Power Transformer has a built in fuse and must be located in an accessible position ESG PT65V/1/4 Power Transformer (230v AC to 65v AC) (130 x 90 x 76 mm) 1 required per switchable area up to 4m2 Figure Two 5v O/P 2 L N Standard Wiring Diagram 220 240V AC 13A Fused Supply N L N L 230 I/P O/P 2 L 65v Switchableâ„ ¢ O/P 2 N L 65v N ESG ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ 220 240V AC 13A Fused Supply N L Wall Switch ESG PT230VA/4/24 Transformers N L 230 I/P 65v O/P 2 L N ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ 65v O/P 2 L ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ N Wall Switch ESG ESG PT230VA/4/24 ESG ESG Transformers Switchableâ„ ¢ Switchableâ„ ¢ Switchableâ„ ¢ 65v O/P 2 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ L 65v O/P 2 N N L ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESGSwitchableâ„ ¢ Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ 65v Please Note: The Power Transformer has a built in fuse and must be located in an accessible position L ESGPT 230VA/ 4 /24 Power Transformer (230v AC to 65 VAC) (260 x 130 x 130mm) 1 required per switchable area up to 4 x 4m2 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ O/P 2 N 12 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Shipping Receiving Shipping ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ is delivered by ESG’s own experienced logistics team throughout the UK. Full crating and shipping service for export worldwide available. All panels must be checked for damage when the panels are delivered and the delivery note marked accordingly as any claims for damage after the delivery driver has left will not be accepted. This includes delivery of both loose panels and those delivered on stillages. if the person receiving the panels marks the delivery note ‘unchecked’ or any variation on this term then they will still be deemed to have accepted the panels as undamaged and the panels will be chargeable. ESG will not be held responsible for damage if the person receiving the panels fails to inspect them. â€Å"Unexpected† Breakage â€Å"Unexplained† glass breakage may occur after all precautions have been taken. Such breakage is beyond the control of the manufacturer and therefore not warrantable. This includes but is not limited to the following items: †¢ thermal stress †¢ damage during sand blasting (if not performed by ESG) †¢ glazing system pressures †¢ damage during glazing †¢ handling and storage problems †¢ excessive wind loads †¢ objects and debris striking the glass †¢ damage by persons/objects at the construction site Storage †¢ Glass edges frequently sustain damage due to careless handling at some point between manufacture and installation. †¢ Handle with care! †¢ If the glass is to be stored on the job site or in warehouse conditions, proper blocking and protection should be maintained at all times. As with other flat glass products, ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ must be stored where the relative humidity is less than 80% to prevent the glass form staining. †¢ The glass temperature should be held nearly constant to prevent moisture condensation on the Panels. Storage temperature range is -20-70  °C. †¢ Pane ls should be tilted at 5 ° 7 ° from vertical at all times using broad, sturdy uprights to support the weight of the glass. Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 13 Glazing General Notes Surface Conditions A. Inspect the areas and conditions under which work will be performed. Correct any circumstances detrimental to the proper completion of the work. You must not proceed with glazing until unsatisfactory circumstances are corrected. B. Ensure all glazing channels, rebates and stops are free from obstructions and substances which may hamper quality of glazing 1. Remove protective coating which might fall in adhesion or interfere with bond of sealants. 2. Ensure the final wiping of surfaces complies with manufacturers’ instructions immediately prior to application of primer and glazing compounds or tapes. USE ONLY NEUTRAL CURE SILICONES. DO NOT USE ACETIC SILICONES. C. Set the glass in a method which produces the greatest possible degree of uniformity appearance. 1. Indicate clearly when install glass in dynamic frames such as operable windows or sliding doors. 2. Glazing to the exterior and wet interior conditions must be wet-sealed and resistant to moisture with provisions to allow for weeping of condensation that may infiltrate the system. 3. Pressure glazing systems without positive positioning stops must not to be used with this glass. 4. Glazier to place electrical connections properly to allow access by an electrician. . Electrical connections must exit at the head condition of any framing system using ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels in wet environment applications. D. Cut and seal the joints of glazing gaskets in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations, provide watertight and airtight seals at corners and other locations where joints are needed. Installation A. Inspect each piece of glass immediately prior to start of installation. 1. Do not install items which are improperly sized, have damaged edges, or are scratched, abraded, or deficient in any other manner. 2. Do not remove labels which are provided by the glass supplier until directed by the Architect. 3. Adhere to all ESG installation instructions and installation drawings. B. Locate sill setting blocks of standard width and thickness at quarter points of all glass lights unless otherwise recommended by manufacturer or supplier. 1. Use blocks of proper durometer, size and thickness to support the glass in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations. 2. Glass lap and edge clearances must be provided according to pertinent codes and standards of manufacturers Protection Reapply protective film after glazing to avoid surface damage proir to commissioning. Cleaning Cleaning can be carried out much in the same way as normal glass by using a slightly damp cloth or professional glass cleaning product. Abrasive products should never be used, particularly when the surface to be cleaned has a reflective coating. ESG advise the use of a professional window cleaning service. Avoid excess moisture / chemical cleaning agents coming into contact with ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panel edges. 14 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Setting/Glazing ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels may be orientated in any direction. The Flat Glass Marketing Association (FGMA) Glazing Guidelines are to be followed except as noted. Setting Blocks †¢ Glass larger than 0. 5 square metres should be placed on two EPDM or neoprene setting blocks. †¢ These blocks should have a durometer hardness of 85 ±5. †¢ They should be centred at the bottom quarter points (i. e. equal distance). †¢ The blocks should be 1. 5 mm narrower than the channel width. †¢ Lock-strip gasket systems also require setting blocks. Recommendations can be obtained from the gasket manufacturers. Glazing Methods Interior Applications Laminated ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels Dry Glazing: This is preferred interior glazing method. Wet Glazing: If a non-acetic sealant is used, it must be compatible with the panel polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer. Never use putty or glazing compound to glaze an ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panel. Exterior Applications Insulated Glass Units made with ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Wet Glazing: Pre-shimmed glazing tape and non-acetic sealants are required to create a seal impervious to moisture for all applications. Butt-Joint Glazing: ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels can be butt-joint glazed in interior applications. Structural Silicone Glazing Insulate glass units manufactured with ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels shall not be structurally silicone glazed. Glass Protection †¢ Once the glass is installed, the architect, general contractor, or owner should provide for glass protection and cleaning. †¢ Weathering steel or alkaline materials may cause surface damage due to staining. †¢ Abrasive cleaners should never be used, particularly when the surface to be cleaned has a reflective coating. †¢ Windblown objects, welding sparks, or other material applied to the glass surface during construction may cause irreversible damage. Frame Design Standard frame edge clearance and face clearances may be used, EXCEPT edge bite must be 11 mm minimum and framing must have a hole of 6 mm diameter. To maintain a proper seal against the infiltration of water and air, adequate bite is required. †¢ Inadequate clearance for the edges can cause damage due to glass-to-frame contact. †¢ The in dustry standard for framing deflection must be adhered to. The deflection must not exceed either the length of the span divided by 175, or 18 mm, whichever is less. All expansion joints and anchors must be designed so that the glass framing does not incur a load due to structural movement. Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 15 Trouble Shooting Caution: ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ operates at 65 VAC and 50 Hz. Higher voltage and frequency may cause permanent damages. Troubleshooting and electrical service must be performed by a qualified electrician who has read and understood this document. Switch the power ON. Confirm that the panels turn clear. If one or more ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels are not operating: 1. Check the circuit breaker to verify power. If there is no power from the circuit breaker, reset or replace the circuit breaker. 2. Check the wall switch to verify power. If there is no power from the wall switch check the connection or replace the wall switch. 3. Check input to the power supply of affected panels to verify power. If there is not input power to the transformer, check the wiring between the wall switch and the transformer. 4. Check output from the transformer to the affected panels to verify power. If there is no output power from the transformer, the fuse may have blown. Replace fuse with the same size and specifications which is available at electronic supply stores. NOTES: 1. Use care when opening the transformer and allow a few minutes to cool down. Internal electronic parts may be very hot. This is normal. 2. Warning: Do not substitute a higher fuse rating! Fuse rating is critical to properly protect ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels and the transformer. Warranties ESG warrants that ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels should be free from defects for a period of five years from the date of invoice unless otherwise specified. Defects include loss of switching where the electrical system and supply are working correctly and/or de-lamination of the panel. In the event of a breach of warranty for the reasons as above ESG will repair or replace the defective product. ESG will not accept any costs incurred by others which are associated with gaining access, removal, replacement, installation of panels or consequential loss claims of any kind. The customer must advise ESG immediately they are aware a panel is defective and if installed they must leave the panel in situ. ESG will decide whether to inspect the installation on site or may ask to have defective product returned for repair or replacement. ESG is not responsible for products which are damaged due to external events such as, but not limited to, natural disasters, incorrect silicone use, improper use, or maintenance or use of unauthorised parts. To ensure safety and proper operation of ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ and to avoid invalidating any warranty, the panels must be installed by a qualified electrician. ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ should be delivered, handled, installed, protected, cleaned and used in compliance with all local legislation, regulations and codes of practice and in accordance with the requirements detailed in the ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Technical Binder and Operation Maintenance Manual. Haze – ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels are not as optically clear as standard float glass. Some degree of haze will always appear due to the nature of the product make-up. As with all LCD switchable smart type privacy glass there will always be some degree of haze and this is not a reason for rejection or a refund. A clear non switchable area of up to 5mm around the perimeter of ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Panels may be observed. This is a natural phenomenon and is not a fault in the product. 16 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Our Quality Standards Your Assurance We are committed to giving customer satisfaction through service provision of the highest standard. This applies to all areas of our business and is central to our mission. Our products are tested in house and by Europe’s leading Independent, third-party certifiers and testers such as BRE, TNO, Technalia, Efectis, Wiltshire Ballistics and the British Standards Institute which distinguish our products and services from our competitors, and gives you, our customers, confidence about their performance. ESG BALLISTIC BS EN 063:2000 Security Glazing – Testing and classification of resistance against bullet attack QMS BS EN ISO 9001 : 2008 – FM 511206 Audit Body – BSI (British Standards Institute) Originally Registered – 8th January 2007 TOUGHENED GLASS BSI Kite Mark Licence – KM 511207 Class 1 Toughened Glass BS EN 12150 : 2000 (Glass in building. Thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass) Impact Tested – BS EN 12600 : 2002 (Glas s in building. Pendulum test. Impact test method and classification for flat glass) HEAT STRENGTHENED GLASS BSI Kite Mark Licence – KM 511207 Heat Strengthened Glass BS EN 1863 : 2000 (Glass in building. Heat strengthened soda lime silicate glass). Bending Strength Tested – BS EN 1288-3 : 2000 (Glass in building. Determination of the bending strength og glass – Part 3 – Test with specimens supported at two points – Four pointbending). HEAT SOAKED GLASS BSI Kite Mark Licence – KM 511207 Heatsoaked Glass – BS EN 14179 : 2005 (Glass in building. Heat-soaked thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass) LAMINATED GLASS BSI Kite Mark Licence – KM 511207 Laminated / Toughened Laminated Glass – BS EN 14449 : 2005 (Glass in building. Laminated glass and laminated safety glass) Tested in accordance to – BS EN 12543-4 : 1998 (Glass in building. Laminated glass and laminated safety glass. Test methods for durability) FIRE GLASS BSI Kite Mark Licence – KM 511207 (For Impact – BS EN 12600:Class1, and Toughened glass BS EN 12150 only. Plus Fragmentation tested under BS EN 12150 by BSI) Approved Certified by CERTIFIRE for ESG Pyrotech E30 in timber and steel doors and screens, and ESG Pyrotech E30 and E60 within steel doors and screens – Certification Number: CF 628 SECURITY GLASS BS EN 356 : 2000 (Glass in Building – Security glazing. Testing and classification of resistance against manual attack). LPS 1270 Issue 1 (Requirements and testing procedures for the LPCB approval and listing of intruder resistant security glazing units). Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 17 18 Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk Smart Film Essay Example Smart Film Essay Glazing Methods Frame Design Setting Blocks Glass Protection 15 15 15 15 15 Trouble Shooting Warranties ESG Product Standards 16 16 17 Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 3 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Overview Where discretion is vital, ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ gives you the choice of privacy or the public gaze at the flick of a switch. Normally a diffused white which acts as a screen, this LCD glass can be made transparent simply by passing an electric current through it. With the power off, liquid crystal molecules in the Privacy film are randomly oriented so that incidental light is scattered, making the glass opaque; but when electricity is applied, the liquid crystal molecules line up and, as light passes through it, the Privacy film becomes optically clear. ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ is available in custom sizes and shapes, making it an ideal choice for architects and designers when creating working, home, retail and leisures spaces. In its white state, LCD glass even becomes the perfect backdrop on which to project presentations, without the need for a separate screen. Features Benefits Unique Features †¢ The largest size film on the market up to 1,800mm x 3,500 mm †¢ Can be combined with certified ESG fire resistant and security glass products, acoustic and decorative interlayers †¢ Can be applied to curved services, cut into odd shapes or even hole punched to accommodate specific display applications †¢ No distraction of shutters. Not susceptible to mechanical failure like powered shutters, curtains or blinds †¢ Blocks 99% of UV rays †¢ Low working voltage †¢ Life – average of 25 years with due care Benefits to our Customers: Manufactured in UK so full support and back up †¢ Offer supply and installation service able to supply turnkey system †¢ Solutions for a wide variety of applications †¢ Complex supply and fix electrical systems service †¢ UK Wide delivery service on ESG’s own fleet †¢ Crating and shipping export service Principles of Privacy Glass Technology Develop ment of LCD Film Obtained license from Kent State University in 1988 Developed reliable formulations and process Designed its own equipment for production Commercialized PDLC film in 1990 Commercialized PDLC glass in 1994 Low Haze version in 2004 Product Type We will write a custom essay sample on Smart Film specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Smart Film specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Smart Film specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer ESG LCD switchable privacy glass 4 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Applications †¢ Commercial Meeting rooms, conference rooms, office partition screens, executive offices, doors, sliding doors, roof lights, tradeshow exhibits and command centres †¢ Dealerships Showrooms, meeting rooms, sliding doors and customer areas †¢ Hotels and Restaurants Hotel room privacy screen, bathroom / bedroom privacy screen, external windows, doors, conference centre windows roof-lights, bar restaurant screens, toilet cubicles, balustrades and balconies †¢ Projection Internal or external high resolution rear projection screens Residential Bathroom / Shower enclosure, projection screens, doors, sliding doors, roof lights, ultra-modern residential and commercial blind applications †¢ Security Security windows, bullet resistant glass, bank cashier window and automated teller security windows, vision panels, entrance foyer and cell doors and windows †¢ Entertai nment and Showrooms Rear projection screens, feature screens, special effects panels and vanity screens †¢ Healthcare Hospital (nursery, emergency, ICU, operation room), fire resistant doors, hospital and privacy/restriction of view †¢ Retail Advertising screens, changing rooms and projection †¢ Executive Cars Privacy screens and security solution †¢ And many more Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 5 Technology Principle: LCD Privacy Film is made of two layers of transparent conductive film sandwiched with PDLC material. The film is then laminated between two pieces of glass. When electricity is applied to the film the liquid crystals line up and ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ becomes transparent. When the power is turned off, the liquid crystals return to their normal scattering positions and turn the glass from optically clear to opaque. The Liquid Crystal Privacy film is encapsulated between layers of glass in a protective laminate construction. ESG Switchable â„ ¢ incorporates 5mm low iron tempered glass as standard as this offers considerably higher light transmission. However as ESG manufacture the product in the UK customers can select from a wide range of glass types colours to suit their project requirements. The outside skins are made up of glass (normally 5 or 6mm annealed glass) each side, then a PVB interlayer is inserted on each side to trap and hold the Liquid Crystal Privacy film. PDLC Light Scattering Mechanism Off On Manufacturing ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ is manufactured in the UK by our experienced team and all stages of its production process are monitored and controlled. ESG employ a variety of laminating methods which enables them to produce a wide range of specialist glass products which can incorporate ESG Switchableâ„ ¢. This method allows us: †¢ to control our production process very precisely †¢ to use different intelayers optimal for specific applications (PVB, EVA, PTU) †¢ to produce all types of glass: shapes, curved, notches, cut outs, holes, fire glass †¢ to manufacture special products: ESG Bullet Resistant privacy glass ESG Secure glass ESG Pyrotechâ„ ¢ glass Glass Sheets LC Film Interlayer Films Glass Sheets The Liquid Crystal Privacy film is made up from electrically conductive coatings, a polymer matrix and liquidFilm LC crystals. This film is connected to the power Films via bus bars, electrical Interlayer suplly wiring and a transformer. Polymer Matrix Liquid Crystal LC Film ESG Acoustic glass We use only the best materials in our production process from major global producers, whose materials are manufactured to internationally recognised Conductive Coatings quality standards. LC Film Conductive Coatings Polymer Matrix Liquid Crystal 6 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Technical Data (ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Switchable LCD Privacy Glass) Glass Colour: Decorative Glass: Glass Type: Thickness: Standard Size: Bespoke Size: Any colour available (clear, bronze, grey, green tint, blue tint Screen printed, sand blasted and patterned Low iron, annealed, heat strengthened, tempered (All laminated) Various from 10 mm to multi layer laminates Up to 1,500mm x 3,200mm Up to 1,800mm x 3,500mm ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ has the largest sizing on the market Shape: Environmental: Electrical: Any shape, including holes, notches and cut outs – Storage -20 °C to 70 °C (-4 °F to 158 °F) – Operation -10 °C to 70 °C (14 °F to 140 °F) – Driving voltage: 65 volts A. C. – Current: 200 mA per square metre – Power: 5 Watts per square metre Approx. 00 milliseconds at room temperature 5 years Switching Time: Warranty: Example ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Glass Sound Control Data Thickness Standard Construction 4 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 4 mm Low Iron tempered glass 5 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 5 mm Low Iron tempered glass 6 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 6 mm Low Iron tempered glass ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Std dB Rating (Rw) 35 36 36 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Acoustic dB Rating (Rw) 37 38 39 10 mm 12 mm 14 mm ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Examples of Optical Performance* Thickness Standard Construction 4 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 4 mm Low Iron tempered glass 5 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 5 mm Low Iron tempered glass 6 mm Low Iron tempered glass x 1. 52 PVB + 0. 4 mm LCD x 6 mm Low Iron tempered glass Visible Light Transmission % (LT) ON* 80 ** 79 ** 78 ** Visible Light Transmission % VS Clear Laminated ? 12 ** ? 11 ** ? 10 ** 10 mm 12 mm 14 mm * According to manufacturer’s test data ** +/– 3% Essex Safety Glass Ltd. Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 7 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Shapes Rectangles Squares Triangles Circles Rounded Corners Trapezoids Parallelograms Domed Tops Notches Holes Cut Outs Special Shapes Special Shapes Special Shapes Special Shapes and many more. Clear/non switchable area s, very small bubbles and/or visual distortion may be present around notches/holes and cutouts. Therefore customers must allow for coverage of 10mm all around notches/holes cutouts. Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 8 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Electrical As with any electrical device, ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ must be included in the electrical layout for each project eg position of spurs, switching layout, containment, and connection boxes etc. The installation must meet all local rules and regulations. In addition, any metal frames which could come into contact with the wiring of the panel must be earthed. ESG is not responsible for supplying electrical layout drawings except when they are providing the electrical installation service. ESG supplied Switches Controllers – When ESG supply switches, remote controls and/or system control equipment for ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ installations, staff will demonstrate operation of the switches and controllers to their customer and provide copies of the technical data sheets for the various electrical components in this manual. ESG’s operatives will demonstrate the operation of all such equipment to their client or end user. It is important to note that the switch/remote control receiver must be wired into the circuit on the mains voltage side of the transformer. Failure to correctly install the switch/remote control receiver will lead to irreparable damage to ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels. Once glazed ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels must be switched off (into opaque state) for a minimum of six hours each day to reduce the risk of damage to the panel and to extend life expectancy. Fuses Transformers must be fitted by the electrical contractor in an easily accessible area so that the fuse can be accessed and replaced if necessary. Do not substitute the fuse in the power supply with a higher rated fuse as this may lead to damage to ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels. Electrical Installation Electrical Installation by ESG Contractors (UK) All electrical installations by ESG contractors will be carried out by electrically competent operatives with all relevant qualifications up to BS7671 IEE Wiring Regulations Seventeenth Edition. The power supply will be calculated to the correct amperage for each project. All 230V power supplies will use RCBO as a protected device and be calculated to operate within 0. of a second under fault conditions. All transformers will have isolation within a meter. All secondary side 65V supplies will be fused within the transformer to protect the ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels and transformer from fault. All installations will be tested to the latest BS7671 IEE Wiring Regulations Seventeenth Edition and on completion the client will be supplied with NICEIC electrical certificate. Power Transfo rmers All secondary side 65V supplies will be fused within the transformer to protect the ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels and transformer from fault. For ease of installation and maintenance ESG supply a number of transformers from 1 x 65V secondary outlet to 6 x 65V secondary outlets as follows : †¢ 230V AC to 65V 1000ma transformer and enclosure 65va †¢ 230V AC to 65V with 2x 65V 1000ma transformer and enclosure 130VA †¢ 230VAC to 65V with 4x 65V 1000ma transformer and enclosure 260VA †¢ 230VAC 65V with 6x 65V 1000ma transformer and enclosure 390VA Ensure the transformer input connects to the 230V supply and output to the ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels. Multiple panels should be connected in parallel. Each transformer output is capable of powering up to 4m2. Electrical Installation by ESG’s Customer ESG require all electrical installations of ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ be completed by a licensed electrician and in compliance with all local rules and regulations. Before installation the electrician must inspect bus bars, electrode leads and cables to ensure they are properly insulated. No exposed bus bars, electrodes or cables should be allowed to come into contact with metal frames as this may damage the ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels and transformer. Any metal framework into which panels will be installed must be earthed. Before turning on the power supply the electrician must test the resistance reading between the frame and the electrode to ensure the reading is infinite/open circuit ie there is no connection between the frame and the panels. If the reading is not infinite then the electrician will need to check all bus bars, electrodes and cables until the short circuit is found and insulated accordingly. Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 9 Bus bars Single Laminated or Double Glazed Units Fig 1. Bus bar on one short edge Wires to power ESG Privacy Panels 1. 5 metres long 2 x 0. 5mm cables per bus bar Bus Bar area 7 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge)* Bus bar ESG Privacy Panel (Mono/DGM) Bus bar * Allow 12 mm edge cover If the short edge to the long edge ratio is 1:4 or less, then the bus bars can be applied to either one short edge or one long edge as Fig. 1 Fig. 2 LCD Film Fig 2. Bus bar on one long edge Bus Bar area 8 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge)* LCD Film Bus bar ESG Privacy Panel (Mono/DGU) Wires to power ESG Privacy Panels 1. 5 metres long 2 x 0. 5mm cables per bus bar Bus bar Allow 12 mm edge cover If the short edge to the long edge ration is greater than 1:4 then the bus bar must be applied to one long or both short edges as Fig. 2 Fig. 3 10 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Fig 3. Alternative bus bar solutions – two short edges* Bus bar Bus Bar area 7 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge) Wires to power ESG Privacy Panels 1. 5 metres long 2 x 0. 5mm cables per bus bar LCD Film Bus Bar area 7 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge)** * Where size exceeds 1,500 mm x 3,200 mm ** Allow 12 mm edge cover Bus bar Fig 4. Alternative bus bar solutions – two long edges Bus Bar area 7 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge)* LCD Film Wires to power ESG Privacy Panels 1. 5 metres long 2 x 0. 5mm cables per bus bar Bus bar Bus bar * Allow 12 mm edge cover If the panel dimension exceed either 1500mm in both directions then the bus bars must be applied to either both short edges or both long edges respectively as Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Bus Bar area 7 mm +/- 2 mm (only at bus bar edge) Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 11 Typical Wiring Diagrams Figure One Wireless Wall Switch / Remote Control Wiring Diagram L 20 240V AC 220 240V AC 13A Fused Supply 13A Fused Supply N N L L L WR 1 Radio Radio Receiver Receiver NN N N WR 1 L L 230v 230v I/P I/P N N 65v O/P L 65v N O/P N L ESG PT65V/1/4 Transformer ESG PT65V/1/4 RCWS Transformer ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ RCWS ESG2CH / Wireless Wall Switch / Remote controller ESG2CH / Wi reless Wall Switch / Remote controller Please Note: The Power Transformer has a built in fuse and must be located in an accessible position ESG PT65V/1/4 Power Transformer (230v AC to 65v AC) (130 x 90 x 76 mm) 1 required per switchable area up to 4m2 Figure Two 5v O/P 2 L N Standard Wiring Diagram 220 240V AC 13A Fused Supply N L N L 230 I/P O/P 2 L 65v Switchableâ„ ¢ O/P 2 N L 65v N ESG ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ 220 240V AC 13A Fused Supply N L Wall Switch ESG PT230VA/4/24 Transformers N L 230 I/P 65v O/P 2 L N ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ 65v O/P 2 L ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ N Wall Switch ESG ESG PT230VA/4/24 ESG ESG Transformers Switchableâ„ ¢ Switchableâ„ ¢ Switchableâ„ ¢ 65v O/P 2 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ L 65v O/P 2 N N L ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESGSwitchableâ„ ¢ Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ 65v Please Note: The Power Transformer has a built in fuse and must be located in an accessible position L ESGPT 230VA/ 4 /24 Power Transformer (230v AC to 65 VAC) (260 x 130 x 130mm) 1 required per switchable area up to 4 x 4m2 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ O/P 2 N 12 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Shipping Receiving Shipping ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ is delivered by ESG’s own experienced logistics team throughout the UK. Full crating and shipping service for export worldwide available. All panels must be checked for damage when the panels are delivered and the delivery note marked accordingly as any claims for damage after the delivery driver has left will not be accepted. This includes delivery of both loose panels and those delivered on stillages. if the person receiving the panels marks the delivery note ‘unchecked’ or any variation on this term then they will still be deemed to have accepted the panels as undamaged and the panels will be chargeable. ESG will not be held responsible for damage if the person receiving the panels fails to inspect them. â€Å"Unexpected† Breakage â€Å"Unexplained† glass breakage may occur after all precautions have been taken. Such breakage is beyond the control of the manufacturer and therefore not warrantable. This includes but is not limited to the following items: †¢ thermal stress †¢ damage during sand blasting (if not performed by ESG) †¢ glazing system pressures †¢ damage during glazing †¢ handling and storage problems †¢ excessive wind loads †¢ objects and debris striking the glass †¢ damage by persons/objects at the construction site Storage †¢ Glass edges frequently sustain damage due to careless handling at some point between manufacture and installation. †¢ Handle with care! †¢ If the glass is to be stored on the job site or in warehouse conditions, proper blocking and protection should be maintained at all times. As with other flat glass products, ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ must be stored where the relative humidity is less than 80% to prevent the glass form staining. †¢ The glass temperature should be held nearly constant to prevent moisture condensation on the Panels. Storage temperature range is -20-70  °C. †¢ Pane ls should be tilted at 5 ° 7 ° from vertical at all times using broad, sturdy uprights to support the weight of the glass. Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 13 Glazing General Notes Surface Conditions A. Inspect the areas and conditions under which work will be performed. Correct any circumstances detrimental to the proper completion of the work. You must not proceed with glazing until unsatisfactory circumstances are corrected. B. Ensure all glazing channels, rebates and stops are free from obstructions and substances which may hamper quality of glazing 1. Remove protective coating which might fall in adhesion or interfere with bond of sealants. 2. Ensure the final wiping of surfaces complies with manufacturers’ instructions immediately prior to application of primer and glazing compounds or tapes. USE ONLY NEUTRAL CURE SILICONES. DO NOT USE ACETIC SILICONES. C. Set the glass in a method which produces the greatest possible degree of uniformity appearance. 1. Indicate clearly when install glass in dynamic frames such as operable windows or sliding doors. 2. Glazing to the exterior and wet interior conditions must be wet-sealed and resistant to moisture with provisions to allow for weeping of condensation that may infiltrate the system. 3. Pressure glazing systems without positive positioning stops must not to be used with this glass. 4. Glazier to place electrical connections properly to allow access by an electrician. . Electrical connections must exit at the head condition of any framing system using ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels in wet environment applications. D. Cut and seal the joints of glazing gaskets in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations, provide watertight and airtight seals at corners and other locations where joints are needed. Installation A. Inspect each piece of glass immediately prior to start of installation. 1. Do not install items which are improperly sized, have damaged edges, or are scratched, abraded, or deficient in any other manner. 2. Do not remove labels which are provided by the glass supplier until directed by the Architect. 3. Adhere to all ESG installation instructions and installation drawings. B. Locate sill setting blocks of standard width and thickness at quarter points of all glass lights unless otherwise recommended by manufacturer or supplier. 1. Use blocks of proper durometer, size and thickness to support the glass in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations. 2. Glass lap and edge clearances must be provided according to pertinent codes and standards of manufacturers Protection Reapply protective film after glazing to avoid surface damage proir to commissioning. Cleaning Cleaning can be carried out much in the same way as normal glass by using a slightly damp cloth or professional glass cleaning product. Abrasive products should never be used, particularly when the surface to be cleaned has a reflective coating. ESG advise the use of a professional window cleaning service. Avoid excess moisture / chemical cleaning agents coming into contact with ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panel edges. 14 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Setting/Glazing ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels may be orientated in any direction. The Flat Glass Marketing Association (FGMA) Glazing Guidelines are to be followed except as noted. Setting Blocks †¢ Glass larger than 0. 5 square metres should be placed on two EPDM or neoprene setting blocks. †¢ These blocks should have a durometer hardness of 85 ±5. †¢ They should be centred at the bottom quarter points (i. e. equal distance). †¢ The blocks should be 1. 5 mm narrower than the channel width. †¢ Lock-strip gasket systems also require setting blocks. Recommendations can be obtained from the gasket manufacturers. Glazing Methods Interior Applications Laminated ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels Dry Glazing: This is preferred interior glazing method. Wet Glazing: If a non-acetic sealant is used, it must be compatible with the panel polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer. Never use putty or glazing compound to glaze an ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panel. Exterior Applications Insulated Glass Units made with ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Wet Glazing: Pre-shimmed glazing tape and non-acetic sealants are required to create a seal impervious to moisture for all applications. Butt-Joint Glazing: ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels can be butt-joint glazed in interior applications. Structural Silicone Glazing Insulate glass units manufactured with ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels shall not be structurally silicone glazed. Glass Protection †¢ Once the glass is installed, the architect, general contractor, or owner should provide for glass protection and cleaning. †¢ Weathering steel or alkaline materials may cause surface damage due to staining. †¢ Abrasive cleaners should never be used, particularly when the surface to be cleaned has a reflective coating. †¢ Windblown objects, welding sparks, or other material applied to the glass surface during construction may cause irreversible damage. Frame Design Standard frame edge clearance and face clearances may be used, EXCEPT edge bite must be 11 mm minimum and framing must have a hole of 6 mm diameter. To maintain a proper seal against the infiltration of water and air, adequate bite is required. †¢ Inadequate clearance for the edges can cause damage due to glass-to-frame contact. †¢ The in dustry standard for framing deflection must be adhered to. The deflection must not exceed either the length of the span divided by 175, or 18 mm, whichever is less. All expansion joints and anchors must be designed so that the glass framing does not incur a load due to structural movement. Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 15 Trouble Shooting Caution: ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ operates at 65 VAC and 50 Hz. Higher voltage and frequency may cause permanent damages. Troubleshooting and electrical service must be performed by a qualified electrician who has read and understood this document. Switch the power ON. Confirm that the panels turn clear. If one or more ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels are not operating: 1. Check the circuit breaker to verify power. If there is no power from the circuit breaker, reset or replace the circuit breaker. 2. Check the wall switch to verify power. If there is no power from the wall switch check the connection or replace the wall switch. 3. Check input to the power supply of affected panels to verify power. If there is not input power to the transformer, check the wiring between the wall switch and the transformer. 4. Check output from the transformer to the affected panels to verify power. If there is no output power from the transformer, the fuse may have blown. Replace fuse with the same size and specifications which is available at electronic supply stores. NOTES: 1. Use care when opening the transformer and allow a few minutes to cool down. Internal electronic parts may be very hot. This is normal. 2. Warning: Do not substitute a higher fuse rating! Fuse rating is critical to properly protect ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels and the transformer. Warranties ESG warrants that ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels should be free from defects for a period of five years from the date of invoice unless otherwise specified. Defects include loss of switching where the electrical system and supply are working correctly and/or de-lamination of the panel. In the event of a breach of warranty for the reasons as above ESG will repair or replace the defective product. ESG will not accept any costs incurred by others which are associated with gaining access, removal, replacement, installation of panels or consequential loss claims of any kind. The customer must advise ESG immediately they are aware a panel is defective and if installed they must leave the panel in situ. ESG will decide whether to inspect the installation on site or may ask to have defective product returned for repair or replacement. ESG is not responsible for products which are damaged due to external events such as, but not limited to, natural disasters, incorrect silicone use, improper use, or maintenance or use of unauthorised parts. To ensure safety and proper operation of ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ and to avoid invalidating any warranty, the panels must be installed by a qualified electrician. ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ should be delivered, handled, installed, protected, cleaned and used in compliance with all local legislation, regulations and codes of practice and in accordance with the requirements detailed in the ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Technical Binder and Operation Maintenance Manual. Haze – ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ panels are not as optically clear as standard float glass. Some degree of haze will always appear due to the nature of the product make-up. As with all LCD switchable smart type privacy glass there will always be some degree of haze and this is not a reason for rejection or a refund. A clear non switchable area of up to 5mm around the perimeter of ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ Panels may be observed. This is a natural phenomenon and is not a fault in the product. 16 ESG Switchableâ„ ¢ – Technical Binder Our Quality Standards Your Assurance We are committed to giving customer satisfaction through service provision of the highest standard. This applies to all areas of our business and is central to our mission. Our products are tested in house and by Europe’s leading Independent, third-party certifiers and testers such as BRE, TNO, Technalia, Efectis, Wiltshire Ballistics and the British Standards Institute which distinguish our products and services from our competitors, and gives you, our customers, confidence about their performance. ESG BALLISTIC BS EN 063:2000 Security Glazing – Testing and classification of resistance against bullet attack QMS BS EN ISO 9001 : 2008 – FM 511206 Audit Body – BSI (British Standards Institute) Originally Registered – 8th January 2007 TOUGHENED GLASS BSI Kite Mark Licence – KM 511207 Class 1 Toughened Glass BS EN 12150 : 2000 (Glass in building. Thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass) Impact Tested – BS EN 12600 : 2002 (Glas s in building. Pendulum test. Impact test method and classification for flat glass) HEAT STRENGTHENED GLASS BSI Kite Mark Licence – KM 511207 Heat Strengthened Glass BS EN 1863 : 2000 (Glass in building. Heat strengthened soda lime silicate glass). Bending Strength Tested – BS EN 1288-3 : 2000 (Glass in building. Determination of the bending strength og glass – Part 3 – Test with specimens supported at two points – Four pointbending). HEAT SOAKED GLASS BSI Kite Mark Licence – KM 511207 Heatsoaked Glass – BS EN 14179 : 2005 (Glass in building. Heat-soaked thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass) LAMINATED GLASS BSI Kite Mark Licence – KM 511207 Laminated / Toughened Laminated Glass – BS EN 14449 : 2005 (Glass in building. Laminated glass and laminated safety glass) Tested in accordance to – BS EN 12543-4 : 1998 (Glass in building. Laminated glass and laminated safety glass. Test methods for durability) FIRE GLASS BSI Kite Mark Licence – KM 511207 (For Impact – BS EN 12600:Class1, and Toughened glass BS EN 12150 only. Plus Fragmentation tested under BS EN 12150 by BSI) Approved Certified by CERTIFIRE for ESG Pyrotech E30 in timber and steel doors and screens, and ESG Pyrotech E30 and E60 within steel doors and screens – Certification Number: CF 628 SECURITY GLASS BS EN 356 : 2000 (Glass in Building – Security glazing. Testing and classification of resistance against manual attack). LPS 1270 Issue 1 (Requirements and testing procedures for the LPCB approval and listing of intruder resistant security glazing units). Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk 17 18 Essex Safety Glass Ltd. , Unit 1-3 Moss Road, Witham, Essex CM8 3UQ Tel: 01376 520061 (10 Lines), Fax: 01376 521176, Email: [emailprotected] co. uk, Web: www. esguk. co. uk

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Calotype essays

The Calotype essays The calotype, invented by William Fox Henry Talbot, is the basis of todays photographic process. His signature is Henry Talbot, and though he is said to have disliked being called Fox Talbot, that name has stuck. Fox Talbot was not the first to produce photographs; he made a major contribution to the photographic process, as we know it today. Talbot's calotype is a paper negative image from which an unlimited number of positives can be printed. The photographer could make different prints from the same negative because they had total control of the prints density. The earliest surviving paper negative is of the now famous latticed window of the library at Laycock Abbey, Wiltshire, where he lived. It is dated August 1835. The picture is small and poor in quality, compared with the striking images produced by the Daguerreotype process. Unlike Daguerre, Talbot did not receive any government help to develop his process. He used his own time and money to develop the calotype process. Though some of his pictures show a measure of artistic taste, it was his inability to produce pictures, which caused him to experiment with a mechanical method of capturing and retaining an image. Talbot used a camera obscura for his sketches, one of, which was Villa Melsi, sketched in 1832. Later he wrote: In October, 1833, I was amusing myself on the lovely shores of the Lake of Como in Italy, taking sketches with a Camera Lucida, or rather, I should say, attempting to make them; but with the smallest possible amount of success... After various fruitless attempts I laid aside the instrument and came to the conclusion that its use required a previous knowledge of drawing that unfortunately I did not possess. I then thought of trying again a method that I had tried many years before. This method was to take a Camera Obscura and to throw the image of the objects on a piece of paper in its focus - fairy pictures, creations of a mome...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

3 Cases of Incomplete Parallel Structure

3 Cases of Incomplete Parallel Structure 3 Cases of Incomplete Parallel Structure 3 Cases of Incomplete Parallel Structure By Mark Nichol In each of the sentences below, an action or result is described in comparison or contrast to another, but the phrasing that expresses the parallel between the two phenomena is faulty. Discussion after each example explains the problem, and revisions illustrate solutions. 1. The statue was vandalized in a similar fashion as another statue in Monterey last year. The middle portion of this sentence presents a flawed comparison- â€Å"similar . . . as† is not valid phrasing; to repair the damage, relocate fashion so that it precedes similar and proceed to thoroughly express the comparison: â€Å"The statue was vandalized in a fashion similar to that of another act of vandalization in Monterey last year.† (Alternatively, rephrase as follows: â€Å"The damage was similar to that which occurred in another act of vandalization in Monterey last year.†) 2. U.S. federal regulators are increasingly issuing and enforcing rules in ways that differ from other countries. Here, issuance and enforcement of rules in one nation is compared to other nations themselves rather than to these processes as they occur in other nations; the statement should be reworded to indicate this additional layer of detail: â€Å"U.S. federal regulators are increasingly issuing and enforcing rules in ways that differ from approaches in other countries.† 3. Referring to the United States, his country’s treaty ally but which has criticized his deadly drug crackdown, he elaborated on his comments. In this sentence, the phrase â€Å"one that† better corresponds with the phrase that precedes but than the pronoun which: â€Å"Referring to the United States, his country’s treaty ally but one that has criticized his deadly drug crackdown, he elaborated on his comments.† For a more closely parallel counterpoint, retain which but apply it to the corresponding phrase as well: â€Å"Referring to the United States, which is his country’s treaty ally but which has criticized his deadly drug crackdown, he elaborated on his comments.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Inquire vs Enquire50 Idioms About Roads and PathsHow Do You Fare?

Friday, February 14, 2020

Literature review 8 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 8000 words

8 - Literature review Example By addressing issues such as of poverty, microfinance and its impact on and gender/power relations and women's empowerment, this study will attempt to inscribe itself into broader discourses and debates concerning equity and equality, gendered inequalities, power relations, women's economic and social empowerment as they are impacted by microfinance. Saudi Arabia is an undisguised, self-evident patriarchal state; this study aims at investigating the positive and negative implications microfinance bears on the Saudi female clients. By studying the initiative Bab Rizq Jameel (BRJ)1, and examining its underlying principles, rational accomplishments and goals, this study aims to examine its effects on power relations, decision-making and bargaining power in the household. This case study of microfinance in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia aspires to unfold an important and lacking dimension to the current debates surrounding gender and development in developing countries particularly in relat ion to debates surrounding gender equality2 vs. ... There have been continual debates on whether microfinance can be considered as a savior to poverty-stricken women from oppression and gendered inequalities or whether having access to micro-financial resources can empower women economically and socially. ‘Studies generally suggest the poorest seldom benefit from microcredit, while the middle and upper poor benefit the most (Maclsaac, 1997). This doesn’t apply to the case in Saudi Arabia because the BRJ scheme is a charity-based approach that is Shari’aa compliant (offering interest-free loans). There is a debate between whether microfinance can help promote gender-equality vs. gender equity. (See footnotes 2 & 3 for the difference) In the case of Saudi Arabia, gender equality would be an ideological scenario, given the religious, cultural and traditional framework in which there impoverished women operate. Gender equity is more of an attainable goal in this context. Furthermore, there are heated debates surroundin g the issue of microfinance being regarded a tool to facilitate women’s empowerment. A recent study in Bangladesh concluded that microfinance politically, ‘does not directly challenge any official views that subjugate women, nor that any hard evidence was found to prove that microcredit credit promotes empowerment or supports women’s liberation ’ (Faraizi et al., 2011). This study is particularly useful to this research because in many ways Saudi Arabia shares commonalities with the religious framework in Bangladesh; where Islamists in high positions of power officially subscribe to unequal rights for women. Whereby, any contrasting, disparate voices against the patriarchal dominant voice are silenced. (Faraizi et al., 2011) In the kingdom of